The Normans (in French: Normands; in Latin Nortmanni) were the people who gave their name to Normandy, a region in northern France. They were descended from Viking conquerors of the territory and the native Merovingian culture formed from Germanic Franks and Romanised Gauls.
The Normans played a major political, military, and cultural role in medieval Europe and even the Near East. They were famed for their martial spirit and eventually for their Christian piety. They quickly adopted the Romance language of the land they settled, their dialect becoming known as Norman, Normand or Norman French.
"Scotland" comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels. The Late Latin word Scotia ("land of the Gaels") was initially used to refer to Ireland.[31 By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to (Gaelic-speaking) Scotland north of the river Forth. The use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707.